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Pursuant to the Consumer Code (Legislative Decree of 6 September 2005, no. 205, articles from 18 to 27 and article 37 bis) and to the regulation included in the Legislative Decree of 2 August 2007, no. 145, the Italian Competition Authority (ICA) is empowered to protect:

a)    consumers from unfair commercial practices used by traders (as provided for by Directive 29/2005/CE);

b)    micro-enterprises from unfair commercial practices used by traders (*);

c)     traders in the case of misleading and illegal comparative business-to-business advertising by competitors;

d)    consumers against unfair contract terms.


(*) Legal protection envisaged by the Consumer Code only for the consumer as a natural person has been recently extended by the Law to micro-firms too, which are defined as entities, companies or associations that, regardless of their legal form, have an economic activity, even as an individual or a family firm, and employ less than ten people and have an annual turnover or an annual total balance not bigger than two millions euro, according to article 7, paragraph 3, of Annex 3 of the European Commission Recommendation no. 2003/261/EC of 6 May 2003 (article 7 of Law Decree no. 1/2012, as transposed into law with modifications by the law of 24 March 2012, no. 27).